From soft soil modelling to engineering application

Year: 2021
Author(s): Minna Karstunen
Publication Type: Paper in proceeding

Soft soil engineering is still a challenge, in particular when we increasingly need to construct on densely populated urban areas next to existing structures, and need to deal with the effects of climate change. The paper discusses the systematic research by the author and her co-workers in the last 20 years that has resulted in the development and validation of advanced soil models, specifically geared for Scandinavian soft soil conditions. The culmination of this research is Creep-SCLAY1S, a rate dependent anisotropic model, which is backed by hierarchical development and systematic validation. Some recent examples of engineering applications where the model was used are are highlighted, in addition to the parameter determination and calibration.

Att synliggöra det osynliga - Kartläggning av representation av miljödata i digitala modeller

Year: 2021
Author(s): Beata Stahre Wästberg, Liane Thuvander, Susanne Van Raalte, Monica Billger
Publication Type: Report

En av de stora utmaningarna för infrastrukturplanering idag handlar om hur man samlar, hanterar och kommunicerar stora mängder data. Effekten som ett projekt kommer att ha på miljö och klimat är svår att visa på ett visuellt begripligt sätt. Därför får detta ofta låg prioritet inom fysisk planering och kommer in sent i planeringsprocessen. Trafikverket hanterar miljöparametrar i så kallade samordningsmodeller vilka visar ett stort landskapsområde i en översiktlig skala, där man samlar alla data kopplat till ett projekt. Idag saknas det dock riktlinjer för hur data ska koordineras och standardiseras i dessa modeller.

Den här rapporten är en omvärldsanalys och beskriver en inventering av projekt som fokuserar på visualisering av miljöparametrar i digitala modeller. Syftet är att dra lärdom av dessa som stöd för att kunna utveckla designkoncept för standardiserad visualisering i samordningsmodeller. Inventeringen vänder sig främst till Trafikverkets specialister, samt forskare inom visualiseringsområdet.

Resultaten från omvärldsanalysen presenteras som en projektsammanställning, utifrån miljöområdena buller, luftkvalitet, social konsekvensanalys samt exempel på digitala tvillingar kopplade till stadsmodeller. I inventeringen definieras även centrala visualiseringskomponenter för representation av data, och vi studerar hur dessa används inom de olika miljöområdena. Rapporten avslutas med en diskussion kring grafisk och rumslig representation, där vi beaktar aspekter som visuella former och visuella egenskaper, vilken dimension (2D eller 3D) data har visualiserats, samt perspektiv och skalor.

Inventeringen ingår i projektet MiljöVis - Effektiv representation av miljöinformation i infrastukturmodeller vars syfte är att utveckla ny kunskap om hur Trafikverkets samordningsmodeller kan bli ett effektivare och tydligare kommunikationsmedel och kvalitetsverktyg. Projektet syftar också till att utveckla nya visualiseringslösningar för integrering av miljödata och sociala aspekter.

City Information Modelling: Digital Planning for Sustainable Cities

Year: 2020
Author(s): Jorge Gil
Publication Type: Other text in scientific journal

No abstact available

Towards spatial integration of qualitative data for urban transformation – challenges with automated geovisualization of perception of urban places

Year: 2020
Author(s): Liane Thuvander, Fabio Latino, Christoforos Zangelidis, Marco Adelfio, Vasilis Naserentin, Anders Logg
Publication Type: Paper in proceeding

Urban planning needs to face and integrate ecological, social, and economic aspects of city living. So far, attempts to integrate different urban simulation models into one technical platform have focused on quantitative data. The aim of this paper is to present the preparation for an automated method to spatially integrate and visualize interview-based qualitative data on the perception of urban places into a virtual platform. The Gothenburg suburb of Hammarkullen is used as a case study. Two CAQDAS software, NVivo and Atlas.ti, were tested. In both
software, locations and urban qualities were coded and clustered. Visualization strategies such as information tree structures, geo-coded quotations, spatial word clouds, linked to 2D maps and 3D environments were developed. Results identify the challenges to overcome and show limitations of the software in terms of creating graphs and relationships as well as automated geocoding of data to maps. The project offers a step towards the integration of qualitative (social)
data into digital environments that can be scaled up. By that, it contributes with a new dimension of analysis of urban environments which is necessary for sustainable transformation of cities.

Data-Informed Urban Design: An Overview of the Use of Data and Digital Tools in Urban Planning and Design

Year: 2020
Author(s): Alexander Gösta, André Agi, Jacob Flårback, Jesper Karlsson, Ellen Simonsson
Publication Type: Journal article

This article aims to map how different digital tools can be useful for architects and how they might affect their work processes. Researchers and professionals were interviewed to investigate what they found valuable to measure, which methods they used within their analyses, as well
as the opportunities and risks they see for the future of the field with regards to digital tools. As part of the survey, a workshop was held with architects and project managers examining the possibilities of connecting existing methods and tools to the sustainability certification system,
City Lab Action Guide, and through that, to achieve a more ambitious set of sustainability goals for the projects. Findings from the study indicate that there are risks associated with giving data an increasingly important role in the design work. A working model never provides the full truth
but is inherently limited by its constraints. It is important to acknowledge that all angles and aspects of a problem can never be represented in a model. Another possible risk identified lies in the quality of, and access to, data. In a scenario where data plays an increasingly important
role, it is not only the quality of the datasets that is of utmost importance, but it is equally important that the urban planners who request the analyses ask the questions first, and then collect the necessary data, instead of vice versa.

Towards wind modelling for sustainable building/urban design

Year: 2020
Author(s): Krystyna Pietrzyk
Publication Type: Paper in proceeding

In view of climate change and resource depletion the analysis of wind impact on built environment could be used for conscious building/urban design protecting humans against high winds but also taking advantage of wind forces in terms of ventilation of spaces or production of wind-driven energy. There is a strong need of developing the modelling technology that would enable predictive studies in this field. Climate change mitigation and adaptation became the point of departure to introduce the notions of risk/chance analysis that could help to examine the architectural/urban design from the holistic perspective. The need of addressing different parts of wind velocity spectrum is acknowledged. The steps forming the process of design for sustainable wind environment are listed. Both the necessary test activities, and the simulation ones, as well as, the ones leading to the application of risk/chance assessment are discussed. Wind thresholds referring to different aspects, levels and scales of studies should be examined. They constitute the boundary of the uncertain set of expected acceptable solutions. In some cases, probabilistic model of thresholds could be considered. Joint project within the Digital Twin Cities Centre (DTCC) at Chalmers is referenced, where the newly established Vinnova Centre of Competence could offer the platform for the development of new modelling technology.

Digital Twins for Cities: A State of the Art Review

Year: 2020
Author(s): Bernd Ketzler, Vasilis Naserentin, Fabio Latino, Christoforos Zangelidis, Liane Thuvander, Anders Logg
Publication Type: Journal article

During the last decades, a variety of digital tools have been developed to support both the planning and management of cities, as well as the inclusion of civic society. Here, the concept of a Digital Twin – which is rapidly emerging throughout many disciplines due to advances in technology, computational capacities and availability of large amounts of data – plays an important role. In short, a digital twin is a living virtual model, a connected digital representation of a physical system and has been a central concept in the manufacturing industry for the past decades. In this article, we review the terminology of digital twins for cities and identify commonalities and relations to the more established term 3D city models. Our fi ndings indicate an increasing use of the term digital twin in academic literature, both in general and in the context of cities and the built environment. We fi nd that while there is as yet no consensus on the exact defi nition of what constitutes a digital twin, it is increasingly being used to describe something that is more than a 3D city model (including, e.g. semantic data, real-time sensor data, physical models, and simulations). At the same time, the term has not yet replaced the term 3D city model as the most dominant term in the 3D GIS domain. By looking at grey literature we discuss how digital twins for cities are implemented in practice and present examples of digital twins in a global perspective. Further, we discuss some of the application areas and potential challenges for future development and implementation of digital twins for cities. We conclude that there are signifi cant opportunities for up-scaling digital twins, with the potential to bring benefi ts to the city and its citizens and clients.

City Information Modelling: A Conceptual Framework for Research and Practice in Digital Urban Planning

Year: 2020
Author(s): Jorge Gil
Publication Type: Journal article

The digitalization of the urban development process is driven by the need for informed, evidence-based, collaborative and participative urban planning and decision-making, epitomized in the concept of Smart Cities. This digital transformation is enabled by information technology developments in fields such as 3D city models, Digital Twins, Urban Analytics and Informatics, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), and Planning Support Systems (PSS). In this context, City Information Modelling (CIM) has recently emerged as a concept related to these various technological driving forces.
In this article, we review the state of the art of CIM (definitions and applications) in the academic literature and propose a definition and a general conceptual framework. By highlighting how the different disciplines are related to each other within this conceptual framework, we offer a context for transdisciplinary work, and focus on integration challenges, for research and development, both in academia and industry. This will contribute to moving forward the debate on digitalization of the built environment development process in the field of Smart Cities.

Visualisering och auralisering av buller i stadsmiljö

Year: 2020
Author(s): Beata Stahre Wästberg, Jens Forssén, Liane Thuvander, Monica Billger, Anders Logg, Fabio Latino
Publication Type: Magazine article

Inom dagens stadsplanering används oftast 2D-kartor för att visa beräknade värden för framtida bullernivåer. Dessa kartor kan ibland vara svåra att tolka. För att öka förståelsen och underlätta kommunikationen mellan olika aktörer inom planeringsprocessen, har vi inom forskningsprojektet DemoVirPEN på Chalmers och Göteborgs universitet utvecklat en prototyp av ett verktyg för visualisering och auralisering (ljudsimulering) av buller från vägtrafik i en stadsmodell.

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